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Used Cooking Oil to Fuel Experiment / 2 Cup Farm Experiment / Mini Poly House Experiment

Please note: The below added information is just a set of collected data and observations. Studies are progressing…

.Pdf – Used Cooking Oil to Fuel Experiment 2 Cup Farm Experiment Mini Polyhouse Experiment

Challenges
1. Increased use of unhealthy foods
2. Increased carbon emissions
3. Scarcity in food production

  1. Increased use of unhealthy foods
    To decrease the use of unhealthy foods, we have to decrease the production of unhealthy foods.
    The oil which is used for frying is used repeatedly and it has a really bad impact on our health, especially the younger generation who consumes such food items from a tender age.
    Solution:
    Used oil must be converted to a better useful liquid so that it becomes beneficial for some other purpose and is not wasted
    As of 2000, the United States was producing in excess of 11 billion liters (2.9 billion U.S. gallons) of recycled vegetable oil annually, mainly from industrial deep fryers in potato processing plants, snack food factories and fast food restaurants. If all those 11 billion liters could be recycled and used to replace the energy equivalent amount of petroleum (an ideal case), almost 1% of US oil consumption could be offset.[8] Use of used vegetable oil as a direct fuel competes with some other uses of the commodity, which has effects on its price as a fuel and increases its cost as an input to the other uses as well.
    In our country there’s a chance of more availability of used oil
  2. Increased carbon emissions
    Carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and fluorinated gases all help trap heat in the Earth’s atmosphere as a part of the greenhouse effect.
    Human activities, primarily the burning of fossil fuels have intensified the greenhouse effect, causing global warming.
    Solution:
    Using vegetable oil fuel as fuel.
    Burning of vegetable oil does not emit the greenhouse gases that fossil fuel combustion does.
    This oil is renewable.
    Vegetable oil can provide far greater mileage per gallon that gasoline. It has been said that a car fueled with a combination of diesel and vegetable oil can go nearly 1000 miles between fill-ups.

    Discussing the Pros and Cons of Using Vegetable Oil as Fuel



    http://www.biodieselmagazine.com/articles/500/the-ethyl-biodiesel-alternative

  3. Scarcity in food production
    The decrease in production of crops is because of less fertile soil, time, effort and cost required for the farming and the need for vast area of cultivable land.
    Solution:
    Food crops should be cultivated in a very less space (inside home), with less maintenance time (for watering, manuring & escape from pests)

The Experiment

Materials required

  1. Used cooking oil
  2. Yeast
  3. Coconut husk
  4. 1 glass milk
  5. 2 cups water
  6. Transparent container
  7. Seeds

Procedure followed
1. Extracted coconut husk is cut to small pieces. Placed this inside a glass box and added the mixture of one glass of milk with 2 cups of water.
2. Seeds of spinach, lotus, sprouting onions, was planted on it. Then the glass box was covered airtight with transparent sheet. This was not watered for 17 days.
3. After filtering used cooking oil (coconut oil) was taken in a bottle and activated yeast was added to it. The top of bottle was connected to a pipe which opens to the glass box.
4. Sprouted Methi (Fenugreek) and Cabbage saplings were planted on another plastic bag which was kept open. Sprinkled water on it regularly.

Hypothesis:
Biodiesel can be produced by adding yeast to used cooking oil and the byproducts of this experiment which is water and carbon dioxide is utilised for cultivation of plants.

Observation:
1. Bubble formation in the bottle having yeast and waste oil.
2. Formation of droplets in the covering of glass box.
3. The seeds started sprouting and growing.
4. Formation of layers in the bottle.
5. Change in color of used cooking oil.
6. Excellent growth is found on onion (which is not a natively grown crop).
7. While burning, the presence of water is identified.

Supporting theories:
1. Even though used Cooking oil could be directly used on diesel engines, being a viscous liquid, there’s a chance of inefficiency and the need for frequent maintenance in the fuel injection system.
This challenge can be overcome by converting used oil into Biodiesel.
Oil is basically tri-glyceride (bond of Glycerine molecule and three fatty acid chains. If these are separated, we get a less viscous liquid (Biodiesel) and a high viscous liquid which is glycerine.
2. Biodiesel production is possible through transesterification or AE (acid esterification) of WVO (Waste Vegetable Oil)
Acid esterification is a way of reducing the FFA (Free Fatty Acid) content to a level that produces more biodiesel and less byproduct.

How To Make Biodiesel With Sulfuric Acid


Transesterification involves the vegetable or animal fats and oils being reacted with short-chain alcohols (typically methanol or ethanol), catalysts like KOH or NaOH.
Vegetable oils generally belongs to a category compounds called esters. converting vegetable oil into biodiesel is transesterification reaction.


This reaction requires using methanol (we’re using ethanol), which causes the fatty acid bonds structure to break and are placed with bonds to ethoxy groups and produces Biodiesel.
And a layer of viscous is formed below which is glycerol.
1. Anaerobic respiration of yeast produces carbon dioxide along with ethanol as the primary waste products (released carbon dioxide is flown to glass box of plants).
The chemical reaction between yeast and sugar produces ethanol and carbon dioxide. The balanced chemical equation for this reaction is glucose/sugar (C6H12O6) in the presence of the yeast enzyme zymase reacts to produce 2C2H5OH (ethanol) +2CO2 (carbon dioxide).
2. In polyhouse cultivation method, the production is comparatively higher because of increased carbon dioxide content inside the polyhouse.
Plants use this chemical to grow. If the concentration of atmospheric CO2 available to plants increases, plants may be able to increase their rate of photosynthesis and thus grow more. This response of plants to elevated concentrations of CO2 is known as the “carbon dioxide fertilization effect.”
Scientists have observed this effect during experimentation; they have seen as much as a 35% increase in the yield of plants like wheat in response to a doubling of atmospheric CO2 from 350 ppm to 700 ppm.
http://www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/climate/GCcarbon4.html
3. During night plants take in oxygen and so it’s not advisable to keep plants inside closed room (in this experiment the plants are inside a closed container).
4. The conversion of certain sulfoxides to alkenes proceeds via the elimination of sulfenic acid:[11]
The prefix sulfenyl in organic nomenclature denotes the RS group (R ? H). One example is methanesulfenyl chloride, CH3SCl.[12] Sulfenate esters, which have the formula RSOR’, are intermediates in the Mislow-Evans rearrangement of allyl sulfoxides.[11] Sulfenamides have the formula RSNR’2.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sulfenic_acid

To Explore:
1. Contents of the resultant liquid and also if it can be used directly on vehicles.
2 Test the purity of glycerol obtained (http://pubs.rsc.org//content/articlelanding/1953/an/an9537800630#!divAbstract)
3. Is there any chance of presence of unwanted bacteria in the yield. (since the carbon dioxide comes in contact with the plant and that carbon dioxide is released from the reaction of yeast)
4. The exact quantity of activated yeast to be added to a fixed quantity of used cooking oil.
5. The impact of yeast over other cooking oils like sunflower oil, palm oil etc.
6. Is there a chance of flowing back of oxygen from the glass box to the bottle.
7. Exact quantities of yeast, ethanol, used oil, onion to be used to get the perfect Biodiesel.
8. The exact amount of time for the reactions

Betterment:
1. Better manure could be used
2. Earthworms could be grown inside the glass box to make the mixture more fertile
3. Used cooking oil could be more filtered before the experiment
4. Used cooking oil could be dried before the experiment. If this is not done, the water will later react with the vegetable oil in the reaction and make soap. (https://www.goshen.edu/academics/chemistry/biodiesel/chemistry-of/)
4. Experiment apparatus could be kept in a place which receives more sunlight
5. Coconut water could be used for the production of ethanol since Coconut water is rich in the electrolyte potassium, with 600mg or 17% & KOH is a catalyst in the production of Biodiesel (https://vitamedica.com/wellness-blog/the-health-benefits-of-coconut-water/ , https://www.goshen.edu/academics/chemistry/biodiesel/chemistry-of/ )

Transesterification using cow urine:
When Cow’s urine was added to a bottle having used oil and yeast, two separate layers where formed. The bottom part must be Glycerine and Biodiesel along with water on the top. The resultant liquids need to be verified through lab tests.

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